These disciplines play an important role in cryptography and cryptanalysis, for example,
in Shannon's theory of secrecy or statistical methods of cryptanalysis. The following
themes will be considered: one- and multidimensional random variables, the distribution
of functions of random variables, the characteristics of random variables, the conditional
expectation, limit theorems, the theory of hypothesis testing, random processes and
their characteristics, stationary and Markov random processes, etc.